איגרת פטרוס השנייה – הבדלי גרסאות

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אין תקציר עריכה
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'''איגרת פטרוס השנייה''' היא [[איגרת (נצרות)|איגרת]] המהווה אחת מספרי [[הברית החדשה]] - מספרי הקודש של ה[[נצרות]]. על פי המסורת הנוצרית נכתבה האיגרת על ידי [[פטרוס הקדוש]].
 
== חלק מהברית החדשה ==
קבלת האיגרת כחלק מהברית החדשה לא עברה בלא מחלוקות. [[אוריגנס]] הביעה את ספקנותו בדבר זהות מחברת האיגרת ובדבר היותה חלק מכתבי הקודש כבר בשלהי [[המאה השנייה]]. גם [[אאוסביוס]] הביע את ספקותיו בדבר זהות האיגרת, אולם בתקופתו גדלה תמיכת התיאולוגים באותנטיות האיגרת ובתקופת [[הירונימוס]] כבר לא היו מחלוקות בדבר היותה חלק מהברית החדשה.
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Acceptance of the letter into the canon did not occur without some difficulty; however, "nowhere did doubts about the letter's authorship take the form of definitive rejection."<ref>Donald Guthrie, ''Introduction to the New Testament'' 4th ed. (Leicester: Apollos, 1990), p. 806.</ref> The earliest record of doubts concerning the authorship of the letter were recorded by [[Origen]] (''[[Circa|c]]''. 185 – 254), though Origen mentioned no explanation for the doubts, nor did he give any indication concerning the extent or location. As D. Guthrie put it, “It is fair to assume, therefore, that he saw no reason to treat these doubts as serious, and this would mean to imply that in his time the epistle was widely regarded as canonical.”<ref> Donald Guthrie, ''Introduction to the New Testament'' 4th ed. (Leicester: Apollos, 1990), p. 806.</ref> Origen, in another passage, has been interpreted as considering the letter to be Petrine in authorship.<ref>M. R. James, ‘The Second Epistle General of St. Peter and the General Epistle of St. Jude’, in, ''Cambridge Greek Testament'' (1912), p. xix; cf. Origen, ''Homily in Josh''. 7.1.</ref> Before Origen's time, the evidence is inconclusive;<ref>Donald Guthrie, ''Introduction to the New Testament'' 4th ed. (Leicester: Apollos, 1990), p. 807.</ref> there is a lack of definite early quotations from the letter in the writings of the [[Apostolic Fathers]], though possible use or influence has been located in the works of [[Clement of Alexandria|Clement]] (d. ''c''. 211), [[Theophilus of Antioch|Theophilius]] (d. ''c''. 183), [[Aristides the Athenian|Aristides]] (d. ''c''. 134), [[Polycarp]] (d. 155), and [[Justin Martyr|Justin]] (d. 165).<ref>C. Bigg, ‘The Epistle of St Peter and Jude’, in ''International Critical Commentary'' (1901), pp. 202-205; R. E. Picirilli, ‘Allusions to 2 Peter in the Apostolic Fathers’, in ''Journal for the Study of the New Testament'' 33 (1988), pp. 57-83; J. W. C. Wand, ''The General Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude'' (1934), p. 141.</ref> [[Eusebius of Caesarea|Eusebius]] (''c''. 275 – 339) professed his own doubts, see also [[Antilegomena]], and is the earliest direct testimony of such, though he stated that the majority supported the text, and by the time of [[Jerome]] (''c''. 346-420) it had been mostly accepted as canonical.<ref>Donald Guthrie, ''Introduction to the New Testament'' 4th ed. (Leicester: Apollos, 1990), pp. 808-809, though the exception of the Syrian canon is noted, with acceptance occurring sometime before 509; cf. Jerome, ''De viris illustribus'' chapter 1.</ref>
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==תוכן==
על פי האמור באיגרת, היא נכתבה זמן קצר לפני מותו של פטרוס (א' 14) (כאשר היתה מחלוקת אם משפט זה מהווה חלק מהטקסט המקורי - ופטרוס ידע את מועד מותו כנבואה, לבין הטוענים כי מדובר בתוספת מאוחרת).
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This [[epistle]] presciently declares that it is written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14). Arguments have been made both for and against this being part of the original text, but this debate largely is centred on the acceptance or rejection of supernatural intervention in the life of the writer.
 
The epistle contains eleven references to the [[Old Testament]]. In 3:15, 16 a reference is made to one of [[Paul of Tarsus|Paul]]'s epistles, which some have identified as [[1 Thessalonians]] 4:13-5:11.
The book also shares a number of shared passages with the [[Epistle of Jude]], e.g. 1:5 with Jude 3; 1:12 with Jude 5; 3:2f with Jude 17f; 3:14 with Jude 24; and 3:18 with Jude 25.
 
[[Tartarus]] is mentioned in 2 Pet 2:4 as devoted to the holding of certain [[fallen angels]]. It is elaborated on in Jude 6. Jude 6 however, is a clear reference to the [[Book of Enoch]]. [[Richard Bauckham|Bauckham]] suggests that 2 Peter 2:4 is partially dependent on Jude 6 but is independently drawing on paraenetic tradition that also lies behind Jude 5-7. The paraenetic traditions are in [[Sirach]] 16:7-10, [[Damascus Document]] 2:17-3:12, [[3 Maccabees]] 2:4-7, [[Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs|Testament of Naphtali]] 3:4-5 and Mishna Sanhedrin 10:3.<ref>Christian-Jewish Relations Through the Centuries By Stanley E. Porter, Brook W. R. Pearson</ref>
 
מספר פסקאות בספר מצויות גם ב[[איגרת יהודה]].
== Audience ==
The audience in this book are the churches in general.
 
האיגרת אינה ממוענת לקהילה נוצרית מסויימת, ומזהירה את הקהילות מפני מורי שקר שיופיעו לאחר מותו של פטרוס.
== Background/ Setting ==
Peter began to think about his limited life, staying on Earth. So, he wrote everything that was in his heart. He also wrote letters warning the people in the churches to beware the false teachers who will come after his death. He lastly reminded the people in the churches that the truth of the Gospel will never change.
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==קישורים חיצוניים==